Dengue fever is the most common insect-borne infectious disease worldwide. There are 4 known serotypes of dengue virus, so it is possible to be infected with dengue more than once. Approximately 1 in 4 infected individuals develop symptoms of dengue, resulting in high fever, muscle and joint pain, and skin rash. In rare cases, most often after a second infection, life-threatening bleeding and shock (severe drop of blood pressure) may occur.
In 3 out of 4 cases, an infection with the virus remains asymptomatic. After a short incubation period (5-8 days), 1 out of 4 infected people present an abrupt onset of fever, headache, joint, limb and muscle pain, as well as nausea and vomiting. Eye movement pain is also typical. A rash usually appears on the 3rd or 4th day of illness. After 4 to 7 days, the fever finally subsides but fatigue may persist for several days or weeks.
In rare cases, severe dengue can occur. Particularly susceptible are local children and seniors as well as people who have experienced a prior dengue infection. Tourists extremely rarely present with severe dengue. In the first days, the disease resembles the course of classic dengue fever, but on the 4th/5th day, and usually after the fever has subsided, the condition worsens. Blood pressure drops, and patients complain of shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort, nosebleeds, and mild skin or mucosal hemorrhages. In the most severe cases, life-threatening shock may occur.
There is no specific treatment for dengue virus infection. Treatment is limited to mitigation and monitoring of symptoms: fever reduction, relief of eye, back, muscle and joint pain, and monitoring of blood clotting and blood volume. Patients with severe symptoms must be hospitalised.
For treatment of fever or pain, paracetamol or acetaminophen are recommended (e.g. Acetalgin® Dafalgan®). Drugs containing the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. Aspirin®, Alcacyl®, Aspégic®) must be avoided.
Effective mosquito protection during the day and especially during twilight hours (i.e. sunset) is the best preventive measure:
No vaccination against dengue virus is currently available for travellers.
This fact sheet contains important information about rabies. For optimal travel preparation, we recommend that you read this information carefully and take the fact sheet on your trip!
No reliable treatment of rabies disease exists!
Stroking cute pets is not a good idea; refrain from touching wild or unfamiliar or dead animals.
All travellers to places where rabies may occur and who are likely to take repeated trips to areas where rabies occurs should have a pre-exposure vaccination. In addition, pre-exposure vaccination is highly recommended for travellers at particular risk:
The shortened vaccination schedule can be proposed to most travellers: 2 shots, the first one at one month before departure if possible (minimum: 8 days before departure). A single third rabies booster vaccination is recommended before the next trip, at least after one year.
There is a risk of arthropod-borne diseases other than malaria, dengue, chikungunya or zika in sub-/tropical regions, and some areas of Southern Europe. These include the following diseases [and their vectors]:
Read the following factsheet for more information.
All travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course and boosters according to the Swiss vaccination schedule to prevent the following conditions:
Travellers should be immune to chickenpox. Persons between 11 and 40 years of age who have not had chickenpox should be vaccinated (2 doses with minimum interval of 4-6 weeks)