At the beginning of March, an almost 4-year-old girl from Jerusalem was diagnosed with acute flaccid paralysis. Circulating vaccine poliovirus type 3 (cVDPV3) was detected in the stool. In the course, another 5 persons were diagnosed with cVDPV3 and one suspected case is still awaiting test results. All 7 persons had not been vaccinated against polio.
Further testing revealed genetic links to VDPV3 strains detected in environmental samples collected from sites in Jerusalem and Bethlehem between September 2021 and January 2022. Health authorities are currently conducting epidemiological and virological investigations on site to further determine the source and origin of the isolated virus and the associated potential risk of further spread.
Hepatitis A occurs all over the world, but the risk of infection is higher in countries with poor hygiene standards. There is an increased risk in most tropical and subtropical countries, as well as in some countries in Eastern Europe and around the Mediterranean.
In recent years, there have also been increasing cases in North America and Europe, including Switzerland, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). Outbreaks in northern European countries can also occur when unvaccinated children become infected during family visits to tropical and subtropical countries. Upon return, they may transmit the virus within their care facilities.
There is a safe and very effective vaccine that consists of two injections at least 6 months apart. It provides lifelong protection after the second dose. Hepatitis A vaccination can also be given in combination with hepatitis B vaccination (3 doses required).
Vaccination against hepatitis A is recommended for all travellers to risk areas, as well as for persons at increased personal risk: persons with chronic liver disease, men who have sex with men, people who use or inject drug, persons with increased occupational contact with persons from high-risk areas or populations, and others.
Regular hand washing after using the bathroom and before eating or preparing food. Avoidance of undercooked or raw food that is potentially contaminated with fecal material.
The most important prevention is vaccination. A very effective and well-tolerated vaccine against polio is available (inactivated (killed) polio vaccine (IPV)), which is part of the basic vaccination schedule during childhood. Combination vaccines (e.g. with diphtheria and tetanus) are also available. After basic vaccination, a booster dose is recommended every 10 years for travel to certain countries (see country page recommendations). WHO recommends a yearly vaccination for residents or long-stay visitors (minimum 4 weeks) in a country with ongoing polio infections or circulating vaccine-derived polio viruses. This recommendation not only targets individual protection, but aims to prevent the international spread of the virus.
All travellers should have completed a basic immunisation and boosters according to the Swiss vaccination schedule, LINK.
Travellers should be immune to chickenpox. Persons between 11 and 40 years of age who have not had chickenpox should be vaccinated (2 doses with minimum interval of 4-6 weeks).
No treatment against rabies disease exists.
Stroking cute pets is not a good idea; refrain from touching wild or unfamiliar or dead animals.
All travellers to places where rabies may occur and who are likely to take repeated trips to areas where rabies occurs should have a pre-exposure vaccination. In addition, pre-exposure vaccination is highly recommended for travellers at particular risk:
The shortened vaccination schedule can be proposed to most travellers: 2 shots, the first one at one month before departure if possible (minimum: 8 days before departure). A single third rabies booster vaccination is recommended before the next trip, at least after one year.
“Cook it, boil it, peel it or forget it” – this simple slogan would be sufficient to prevent typhoid fever nearly entirely. However, only few travelers fully adhere to this advice. Nevertheless, the value of food and water hygiene cannot be stressed enough: avoid buying water bottles without proper sealing, avoid drinking tap water from unknown sources, avoid eating cooled / frozen foods (i.e. ice cubes in water or ice cream) and avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables that you yourself have not peeled and washed with clean drinking water.
Two types of vaccines are available:
Wichtig: Eine STI kann auch ohne oder mit nur leichten Symptomen auftreten. Auch wenn Sie sich dessen nicht bewusst sind, können Sie andere anstecken. Deshalb ist es wichtig sich testen zu lassen.
Durch Bakterien oder Parasiten hervorgerufen
Alle diese Krankheiten können geheilt werden. Wichtig ist dabei, frühzeitig zu testen und umgehend zu therapieren, um Komplikationen und v.a. weitere Übertragungen zu vermeiden.
Durch Viren hervorgerufen
There is a risk of arthropod-borne diseases other than malaria, dengue, chikungunya or zika in sub-/tropical regions, and some areas of Southern Europe. These include the following diseases [and their vectors]: