Health Advice

for Travellers

Swiss Expert Committee for Travel Medicine
Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands

General Information

  • Avoid all non-essential travel
  • If travel is unavoidable: get full COVID-19 vaccination protection before travel and adhere strictly to the recommendations and regulations of your host country
  • Check entry requirements of destination country (see regulary updated COVID-19 Travel Regulations Map of IATA: LINK)
  • Check the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) requirements for return to Switzerland from your travel destination (see LINK)

Detailed information by diseases (key aspects | maps | fact sheets etc.) are primary included in the section 'important health risks' otherwise to be found under the respective vaccination.

Important health risks

  • Covid-19 is a disease that affects the whole body, but mainly shows with respiratory symptoms such as cough and difficulty in breathing. It is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
  • The infection is mainly spread through respiratory droplets and possibly aerosols when infected persons cough, sneeze, speak or sing without wearing a mask.
  • The infection can be prevented very effectively by vaccination and an increasing number of vaccines are now approved and available for protection.
  • Furthermore, prevention relies heavily on people wearing face masks, on hand hygiene and on physical distancing (min. 1.5 m) if masks are not worn and people are not vaccinated.

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  • Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic infection, which is transmitted by mosquitoes at night.
  • Great care should be given to preventive mosquito protection from dusk to dawn in all malaria risk areas.
  • In high-risk areas, taking regular prophylactic medication is strongly advised.
  • For stays in low risk areas: discuss with a travel health advisor whether carrying stand-by emergency self-treatment against malaria is recommended.
  • If you belong to a special risk group (pregnant women, small children, senior citizens, persons with pre-existing conditions and/or with immune deficiency): seek medical advice before the trip as malaria can quickly become very severe.
  • If you have a fever >37.5°C on measuring under your arm or in your ear (a functioning thermometer is indispensable!) during or after the trip, see a doctor / hospital immediately and have a blood test done for malaria! This applies regardless of whether you used prophylactic medication or not!
  • For personal safety, we strongly recommend getting informed in detail about malaria and reading the following information.

    • Regions: Entire country

    Prevention: Mosquito bite prevention and chemoprophylaxis.

    Discuss with your travel health advisor which prophylactic medication is suitable for you. The doctor will prescribe the appropriate medication and dosage.

    For personal safety, we strongly recommend getting informed in detail about malaria and taking this factsheet with you on your trip.

    • Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic infection, which is transmitted by mosquitoes at night.
    • Great care should be given to preventive mosquito protection from dusk to dawn in all malaria risk areas.
    • In high-risk areas, the intake of prophylactic medication is strongly advised.
    • For stays in low risk areas: discuss with a travel health advisor whether carrying an emergency self-treatment against malaria is necessary.
    • If you belong to a special risk group (pregnant women, small children, senior citizens, persons with pre-existing conditions and/or with immune deficiency): seek medical advice before the trip as malaria can quickly become very severe.
    • If you have a fever >37.5°C on axillary or tympanic measurement (a functioning thermometer is indispensable!) during or after the trip, see a doctor / hospital immediately and have a blood test done for malaria! This applies regardless of whether you have used prophylactic medication or not!

    Malaria is a life-threatening acute febrile illness caused by parasites called Plasmodia, which are transmitted by mosquitoes at night (between dusk and dawn). Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent complications and death, and to cure the disease. To prevent malaria, diligent mosquito-bite protection is important, as well as taking additional prophylactic (preventive) medication when staying in high-risk areas. Risk groups such as pregnant women, small children, elderly persons or travellers with complex chronic conditions should seek specialized advice.

    Malaria occurs widely in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia, South and Central America (see also malaria map).

    Plasmodia are transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes, which only bite between dusk and dawn. They sometimes go unnoticed, because they are small and make almost no noise.

    After visiting a malaria endemic area, the symptoms usually appear seven days to one month after infection, but sometimes after several months or more than a year. Symptoms begin with fever and may appear very similar to flu. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, nausea, and sometimes diarrhea or cough. The diagnosis can only be confirmed with a blood test.

    Fever during or after a stay in a malaria-endemic area is an emergency! Prompt diagnosis and treatment are required as the health of people with malaria can deteriorate very quickly. That means: if you have fever >37.5° (use a thermometer!) you need to test for malaria within a maximum time-frame of 24 hours, regardless of whether or not you have used prophylactic medication (malaria chemoprophylaxis). Try to reach a doctor or hospital where you can reliably receive such a test. If the first test is negative, it should be repeated on the following day if the fever persists.

    Malaria can be treated effectively, but without treatment, this disease can quickly cause complications and become fatal. People who have had malaria in the past are not protected from being infected again.

    Prevention of malaria requires a combination of approaches:

    1. Diligent mosquito-bite protection at dusk and at night until dawn is of key importance. Use it for all regions where malaria is present, including areas where the risk is minimal. Bite protection is also effective against other insect-borne diseases that often occur in the same region. It consists of the following measures:
      • Clothing: Wear long-sleeved clothes and long trousers. For additional protection, impregnate the clothes beforehand with insecticides containing the active ingredient permethrin (e.g. Nobite® Textile).
      • Mosquito repellents: Apply a mosquito repellent to uncovered skin.
      • Sleeping room: Sleep in an air-conditioned room or under an impregnated mosquito net. Cautiously use ‘knockdown’ sprays indoors or burn mosquito coils strictly outside, e.g. under a table in the evening.
      • Chemoprophylaxis: Depending on the region and season, it may be necessary to take a prophylactic medication. This is recommended for all destinations with a high risk of malaria (marked as red on our maps). It needs to be taken with food before, during, and after your stay. Discuss with your travel health advisor to ascertain if you need to take chemoprophylaxis for your trip. The appropriate medication and the right dosage will be prescribed.
    2. Taking standby emergency self-treatment (SBET, drugs used to self-treat malaria) with you is recommended for special risk situations (stay in regions with low malaria risk and if there is no or uncertain medical care available). Following such a course of SBET, please consult a doctor as soon as possible. Talk to your travel health advisor to determine whether carrying SBET is necessary, especially if you plan a trip where reliable medical infrastructure is not assured.
    3. For some risk groups, malaria can quickly develop to a dangerous disease. If you are pregnant, if you are travelling with small children, or if you are a senior citizen and / or if you have other illnesses /pre-existing conditions and / or you are immunocompromised, you should seek advice from a specialist in travel medicine to determine whether chemoprophylaxis is recommended for your trip – even if the area is marked as low risk malaria zone.

    For travellers, there is currently no malaria vaccination available.

    • Take a functioning clinical thermometer with you!
    • Malaria symptoms develop at the earliest 7 days after entering the malaria area. A fever > 37.5° always means suspicion of malaria!
    • In case you have fever during or even months after a stay in a malaria area:
      • Immediately consult a health care facility to rule out malaria through a blood test.
      • This should be done within a maximum of 24 hours and applies regardless of whether you have used prophylactic medication or not!
      • The blood tests should be repeated if the result is negative or doubtful and fever persists or recurs.
    • For persons having visited a malaria area with low risk and for whom SBET was prescribed:
      • If you have fever: immediately try to get tested for malaria.
      • If this is not possible, and fever persists for longer than 24 hours or recurs: start taking the standby emergency-self-treatment as it was prescribed by your travel health advisor.
      • Even if you have started your self-treatment against malaria: seek medical advice as quickly as possible to get the cause of your fever diagnosed.

    • Dengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes that bite during daytime.
    • As a prevention measure, great attention should be given to protection from mosquito bites.
    • There is neither a vaccination nor a specific medication against dengue or chikungunya for travellers.
    • In case of fever: do not use acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. Aspirin®, Alcacyl®, Aspégic®) as this can worsen bleeding in case of dengue infection.
    • Read the following information for optimal travel preparation.

    Distribution of dengue, see DENGUE MAP

    • Dengue fever is the world's most common insect-borne infectious disease.
    • Great attention should be paid to mosquito protection during the day!
    • The disease can cause high fever, muscle and joint pain, and skin rashes. In rare cases, bleeding may occur. There is no specific treatment.
    • For personal safety, we strongly recommend that you inform yourself in detail about dengue.

    Dengue fever is the most common insect-borne infectious disease worldwide. There are 4 known serotypes of dengue virus, so it is possible to be infected with dengue more than once. Approximately 1 in 4 infected individuals develop symptoms of dengue, resulting in high fever, muscle and joint pain, and skin rash. In rare cases, most often after a second infection, life-threatening bleeding and shock (severe drop of blood pressure) may occur.

    Dengue fever occurs in all tropical and subtropical regions between latitudes 35°N and 35°S (see also CDC map:

    Dengue virus is transmitted mainly by day- and dusk-active mosquitoes, namely Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti and Stegomyia (Aedes) albopictus. These mosquitoes breed in small water puddles, as they are often found around residential buildings or at industrial zones / waste dumps of human settlements. The main transmission season is the rainy season.

    In 3 out of 4 cases, an infection with the virus remains asymptomatic. After a short incubation period (5-8 days), 1 out of 4 infected people present an abrupt onset of fever, headache, joint, limb and muscle pain, as well as nausea and vomiting. Eye movement pain is also typical. A rash usually appears on the 3rd or 4th day of illness. After 4 to 7 days, the fever finally subsides but fatigue may persist for several days or weeks.

    In rare cases, severe dengue can occur. Particularly susceptible are local children and seniors as well as people who have experienced a prior dengue infection. Tourists extremely rarely present with severe dengue. In the first days, the disease resembles the course of classic dengue fever, but on the 4th/5th day, and usually after the fever has subsided, the condition worsens. Blood pressure drops, and patients complain of shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort, nosebleeds, and mild skin or mucosal hemorrhages. In the most severe cases, life-threatening shock may occur.

    There is no specific treatment for dengue virus infection. Treatment is limited to mitigation and monitoring of symptoms: fever reduction, relief of eye, back, muscle and joint pain, and monitoring of blood clotting and blood volume. Patients with severe symptoms must be hospitalised.

    For treatment of fever or pain, paracetamol or acetaminophen are recommended (e.g. Acetalgin® Dafalgan®). Drugs containing the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. Aspirin®, Alcacyl®, Aspégic®) must be avoided.

    Effective mosquito protection during the day and especially during twilight hours (i.e. sunset) is the best preventive measure:

    1. Clothing: Wear well-covering, long-sleeved clothing and long pants and spray clothing with insecticide beforehand (see factsheet “prevention of arthropod bites”)
    2. Mosquito repellent: Apply a mosquito repellent to uncovered skin several times a day (see factsheet “prevention of arthropod bites”)
    3. Environmental hygiene: Do not leave containers with standing water (coasters for flower pots, etc.) in your environment to avoid mosquito breeding sites.

    No vaccination against dengue virus is currently available for travellers.

    Do not take any products containing the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. Aspirin®, Alcacyl®, Aspégic®) if you have symptoms, as they may increase the risk of bleeding in the event of a severe dengue infection!

    Dengue Map (Center for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC): 

    Distribution of Chikungunya, see CHIKUNGUNYA MAP

    • Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
    • Chikungunya can be prevented by protection against mosquito bites.
    • It typically presents with severe joint pain of the hands and feet. In a few patients, these may persist for weeks or months.

    Chikungunya is caused by the chikungunya virus, which was first described in 1952 in Tanzania. The name is believed to come from a local African language, meaning ‘to become bent over’, and refers to the posture of affected persons who lean on walking sticks due to severe joint pain.

    Indian subcontinent, South-East Asia and Pacific islands, Central and South America, Caribbean islands, Sub-Sahara Africa, Arabian peninsula. In Europe, cases are mainly imported from endemic countries. However, local transmission has occurred in 2007, in 2014, and in 2017 (Italy and France).

    The chikungunya virus is transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, which predominantly bite humans during daytime.

    The infection may present with some or all of the following symptoms: sudden onset of high-grade fever, chills, headache, redness of eyes, muscle and joint pain, and rash. The rash usually occurs after the onset of fever and typically involves the trunk and extremities, but can also include the palms, soles of the feet, and the face.

    Often fever occurs in two phases of up to one week duration, with an interval of one to two fever-free days in between. The second phase may present with much more intense muscle and joint pain, which can be severe and debilitating. These symptoms are typically bilateral and symmetric and mainly involve hands and feet, but may also involve the larger joints, such as the knees or shoulders.

    About 5-10% of infected people continue to experience severe joint pain even after the fever has subsided, in some cases lasting up to several months or, albeit rare, even years.

    Diagnosis can be confirmed by blood tests: PCR in the first week of symptoms or serology (antibody measurement) from the second week of illness.

    There is no treatment against the virus itself, only symptomatic treatment for the joint pains (anti-inflammatory drugs).

    Mosquito bite prevention during the daytime (when Aedes mosquitoes are active): repellants on uncovered skin, wearing long clothes, treating clothes with insecticide. A further very important protective factor is ‘environmental hygiene’, meaning preventing the occurrence of breeding sites for mosquitoes within close proximity of human housing by eliminating all forms of recipients containing water.

    • Zika is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes that bite during the day.
    • Zika virus infection during pregnancy (any trimester) can cause fetal malformation.
    • In areas at increased risk of transmission (epidemic), specific recommendations must be given to women who are – or wish to become – pregnant.
    • If you or your partner is pregnant or if you are planning a family, we strongly recommend that you inform yourself in detail about zika.

      Distribution of Zika, see ZIKA  MAP

      • The fact sheet contains important information on zika and prevention measures.
      • If you or your partner is pregnant or if you are planning a family, we strongly recommend that you inform yourself in detail about zika.

      • Zika is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes that bite during the day.
      • Zika virus infection during pregnancy (any trimester) can cause fetal malformation.
      • In areas at increased risk of transmission (epidemic), specific recommendations must be given to women who are – or wish to become – pregnant.

          Zika is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes that bite during the day. In general, the disease is mild and heals spontaneously. About one in five people develop symptoms such as fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, joint pain, muscle pain, and sometimes headaches. Rarely, immunological and neurological complications occur. Infection during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the fetus. Pregnant women are advised against travelling to countries with increased risk (current epidemic).

          The Zika virus was identified in 1947 in monkeys from the Zika forest in Uganda. Virus circulation has long been limited (a few cases each year) in Africa and South-East Asia. In May 2015, the American continent was affected for the first time, with an epidemic in Brazil that rapidly spread to South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Since then, the disease has been reported in most tropical and subtropical regions.

          The risk of infection is currently low in most regions and does not require specific measures. However, epidemics may occasionally reappear. During epidemics, the risk of transmission is high, and specific recommendations for the traveller are necessary.

          Zika virus is transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes (Aedes spp. including ‘tiger mosquito’), which bite during the day, with maximum activity at dawn and around sunset. These mosquitoes are common in cities in tropical and subtropical regions. The virus can be transmitted from person to person, during pregnancy by an infected mother to the fetus, or during unprotected sex with an infected person (with or without symptoms). Transmission by blood transfusion is also possible.

          About 80% of infected people have no symptoms. Clinical signs begin within 2 weeks after the bite of an infected mosquito and are generally mild: moderate fever, rash often with itching, conjunctivitis, joint pain, headache, muscle pain, and digestive disorders. In general, the patient heals spontaneously after 5-7 days. Neurological (Guillain-Barré syndrome) and immunological complications can occur, but are rare. Zika virus infection during pregnancy (any trimester) can cause fetal malformation.

          In case of fever, it is recommended to consult a doctor. The symptoms of a Zika virus infection may seem similar to those of malaria, for which urgent treatment is necessary, or dengue fever. Treatment for Zika aims for reduction of fever and joint pain (paracetamol). Avoid aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. ibuprofen) as long as dengue fever is not excluded. There is no vaccine available.

          In case of pregnancy and fever during or upon return from a Zika virus transmission area, blood and/or urine tests are indicated. In case of confirmed infection, the medical management should be discussed with the gynecologist and infectious/travel medicine specialists.

          The risk of infection can be reduced by effective protection from mosquito bites during the day and in the early evening (long clothing, mosquito repellents, mosquito net).

          When travelling in an area of increased risk (= declared epidemic) and in order to prevent possible sexual transmission of the virus, it is recommended to use a condom / Femidom during the trip and at least 2 months after return.

          Due to the risk of fetal malformation, pregnant women are advised against travelling to areas at increased risk (= declared as epidemic) of Zika transmission at any time during pregnancy (in case of essential travel, a consultation with a travel medicine specialist is advised before departure). Women who wish to become pregnant should wait at least 2 months after their return (or that of their partner) from an area at increased risk of Zika transmission.

          • Zika virus infection during pregnancy (any trimester) can cause fetal malformation.
          • For most up-to-date information on Zika distribution and / or Zika outbreaks, please consult CDC Zika Travel Information: 

          Swiss TPH - Information on the Zika Virus: 

          • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a group of viral, bacterial and parasitic infections; while many are treatable, some can lead to complications, serious illness or chronic infection.
          • STIs are increasing worldwide.
          • Read the following fact sheet for more information.

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          There is a risk of arthropod-borne diseases other than malaria, dengue, chikungunya or zika in sub-/tropical regions, and some areas of Southern Europe. These include the following diseases [and their vectors]:

          • in Europe
            • Borreliosis, FSME (= tick-borne encephalitis), rickettsiosis [ticks]
            • Leishmaniasis [sand flies]
            • West-Nile fever [mosquitoes]
          • in Africa
            • Rickettsiosis, in particular African tick bite fever [ticks]
            • Leishmaniasis [sand flies]
            • African trypanosomiasis =sleeping sickness [tsetse flies]
            • West-Nile fever [mosquitoes]
          • in Asia 
            • Scrub typhus [mites]
            • Rickettsiosis [fleas or ticks]
            • Leishmaniasis [sand flies]
            • West-Nile fever [mosquitoes]
            • Crimea-Congo-hemorrhagic fever [ticks]
          • in North and Latin America  
            • Rickettsioses and in particular Rocky Mountain spotted fever [ticks]
            • Leishmaniasis and Carrion's disease [sand flies]
            • American trypanosomiasis = Chagas disease [triatomine bugs]
            • West Nile fever [mosquitoes)]

          Read the following factsheet for more information.

          • There are other important travel related health risks such as diarrhoea, road traffic accidents, air pollution and more.
          • For more information, see the section "Healthy Travelling".


          Vaccination recommended according to Swiss recommendations.

          All travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course and boosters according to the Swiss vaccination schedule to prevent the following conditions:

          • Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis-polio
          • Measles-mumps-rubella

          Travellers should be immune to chickenpox. Persons between 11 and 40 years of age who have not had chickenpox should be vaccinated (2 doses with minimum interval of 4-6 weeks)

          • The entry regulation below was issued in December 2019. It is unclear whether it is currently still valid.
          • Proof of vaccination against measles must be presented upon entry into Solomon Islands if entering from the following countries: Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, New Zealand, US Samoa, Samoa, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea or Tonga (excluding transit stays in the countries mentioned).
          • Vaccination or measles antibody certificate must have been obtained at least 15 days prior to arrival in Solomon Islands (documentation required).
          • Exempted from this entry requirement are: Children under 6 months, pregnant women and persons with documented contraindication to measles vaccination.

          • Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all travellers going to tropical or subtropical countries.

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          There is no risk of yellow fever in this country. However, there is an entry requirement by the country regarding yellow fever vaccination certificate, see below.

          • Vaccination is mandatory for entry within 6 days from a yellow fever endemic area (also in case of airport transit there).

          • All travellers to yellow fever endemic countries should be vaccinated against yellow fever (even if vaccination is not mandatory in the country). A booster single booster dose is recommended for immuncompetent persons after 10 years.
          • The yellow fever vaccination must be administered by an authorized doctor or center at least ten days before your arrival in the destination country with record in the yellow vaccination booklet ('International Certificate for Vaccination’).
          • For travellers who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or who have a condition that leads to immunosuppression, please consult a travel health advisor.

          • Yellow fever occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and South America and is transmitted by mosquitoes.
          • Disease may be severe in unvaccinated travelers and death may occur in over 50%.
          • A highly effective vaccine is available.
          • Due to potentially severe side effects the vaccine is used with caution in immunocompromised or elderly individuals, as well as in pregnant women.

          Yellow fever is an acute viral infection transmitted through the bite of mosquitoes. The disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It is a potentially lethal disease. However, the vaccination offers very high protection.

          Yellow fever is endemic in countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, and in Panama. Transmission occurs all over the year but may peak in the rainy season. Although the same species of mosquitoes are present, yellow fever has not been found in Asia.

          The yellow fever virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected daily active Aedes mosquitoes, or Haemagogus species mosquitoes, which are day and night active. Mosquitoes acquire the virus by feeding on infected primates (human or non-human) and then can transmit the virus to other primates (human or non-human). Yellow fever transmission and epidemics are facilitated by the interface of jungle, savannah and urban areas. Humans working in the jungle can acquire the virus and become ill. The virus then can be brought to urban settings by infected individuals and may be transmitted to other people.

          Most people infected with yellow fever virus have mild or no symptoms and recover completely. Some people will develop yellow fever illness with onset of symptoms typically 3 to 6 days after infection. Symptoms are unspecific and flu-like (fever, chills, head and body pain). After a brief remission, about 10-20% will develop more severe disease. Severe disease is characterized by high fever, yellow skin and eyes, bleeding, shock and organ failure. About 30 to 60% of patients with severe disease die.

          There is no specific medication. Treatment is only supportive and consists of providing fluid and lowering fever. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example ibuprofen or naproxen, should be avoided due to the risk of enhanced bleeding.

          As against all mosquito-borne diseases, prevention from mosquito bites is during day and night (see “Insect and tick bite protection” factsheet). The available vaccine is highly efficacious and provides a long-term protection. It is recommended for people aged 9 months or older who are travelling to yellow fever endemic areas. In addition, providing proof of vaccination may be mandatory for entry into certain countries.

          The vaccine is a live-attenuated form of the virus. In immunocompetent persons, protection starts about 10 days after the first vaccination. Reactions to yellow fever vaccine are generally mild and include headache, muscle aches, and low-grade fevers.  Side effects can be treated with paracetamol but aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example ibuprofen or naproxen, should be avoided.  On extremely rare occasions, people may develop severe, sometimes life-threatening reactions to the yellow fever vaccine – which is why this vaccine is used with caution in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women and the elderly for safety reasons. Talk to your travel health advisor if you belong to this group.

          In 2016, WHO changed from yellow fever booster doses every 10 years to a single dose, which is considered to confer life-long protection. However, this decision was based on limited data and mainly from endemic populations, potentially exposed to natural boosters (through contact with infected mosquitoes), which does not apply to travellers from non-endemic regions. As several experts have raised concerns about the WHO single dose strategy, the Swiss Expert Committee for Travel Medicine recommends a single booster dose ≥10 years (max. 2 doses per life-time) in immunocompetent persons after primo-vaccination before considering life-long immunity.

          Yellow Fever Map - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 
          Yellow Fever Info - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 
          Yellow Fever Info - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: 

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          In special situations, additional vaccinations are recommended or mandatory. Discuss with your doctor whether one of the following vaccinations is recommended for you:

          • Hepatitis B is a viral liver infection that is transmitted via contaminated blood or via sexual contact.
          • A safe and very effective vaccine is available that affords life-long protection.
          • Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all young people and at-risk travellers, especially if:
            • You travel regularly or spend long periods of time abroad.
            • You are at risk of practicing unsafe sex.
            • You might undergo medical or dental treatment abroad, or undertake activities that may put you at risk of acquiring hepatitis B (tattoos, piercing, acupuncture in unsafe conditions).

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          • Typhoid fever is a serious disease that is caused by bacteria and transmitted through contaminated food or water.
          • The risk is very low for travellers who have access to safe food and drinks.
          • The best protection against typhoid fever is to follow optimal basic hygiene.
          • A vaccination against typhoid is available that is recommended in following circumstances
            • Visit to an area with poor hygienic conditions (e.g. travelling to rural areas)
            • Short stay (>1 week) in a high-risk (hyper-endemic) country (see country page)
            • long-term stays (> 4 weeks) in an endemic country
            • Presence of individual risk factors or pre-existing health conditions. In that case, please talk to your health advisor.

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          • Typhoid fever, also called enteric fever, is caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi.
          • Infected persons shed the bacteria in their feces. In countries with low sanitation standards, the bacteria can then enter the drinking water system and lead to infections in other people.
          • Frequent sources of infection are contaminated food and beverages.
          • The main preventive measure therefore is “cook it, peel it, boil it or forget it” – meaning: avoid drinking uncooked water or water from unsealed bottles; avoid cooled/frozen products (e.g. ice cubes in drinks, ice cream) unless from a known safe source; avoid uncooked vegetables, peel and clean fruit and vegetables yourself and only with known safe drinking water.
          • A vaccine is available and recommended: a) for travelers to the Indian subcontinent or to West Africa, b) for travelers visiting friends and relatives or for long-term travelers also to other sub-/tropical areas.

          Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease that affects the whole body and mainly presents with high fever, often accompanied by drowsiness (“typhos” in Greek stands for delirium) and severe headaches. If the infection is treated with appropriate antibiotics, mortality is very low. If left untreated however, complications may follow, which can lead to significant mortality. Typhoid fever must be clearly distinguished from salmonellosis, caused by a large range of non-typhoidal salmonella species that mainly cause benign diarrheal symptoms worldwide.

          The highest occurrence of typhoid fever is on the Indian subcontinent (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Bangladesh). This is also the region with a steady increase in antibiotic resistance. The disease also occurs in the whole sub-/tropical region, but with lower frequency. It used to occur also in Europe and North America, but the disease has disappeared thanks to improved water and sanitation standards.

          Typhoid fever is transmitted via the fecal-oral route: bacteria are shed in the feces of infected persons and – if insufficient hand hygiene is practiced – infected persons may contaminate the food and drinking water supply of their families. In regions with low sanitation standards, contaminated feces may also contaminate the public drinking water supply.

          The incubation period – time between infection and first symptoms – can vary between 3 days to 3 weeks. The principle symptom of typhoid fever is high-grade fever (39° - 41° C) accompanied by strong headache and drowsiness. In the initial phase of the disease, patients often complain of constipation. In later stages, this may turn into diarrhea. In later stages of the disease – and in the absence of correct treatment – complications such as septicemia, intestinal hemorrhage or perforation can follow, which may lead to considerable mortality.

          Appropriate antibiotic treatment cures typhoid fever. Treatment should be adapted according to the resistance profile of the bacteria. On the Indian subcontinent, some strains may be multi-resistant, necessitating broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic treatment. In severe typhoid fever with reduced consciousness (delirium) or coma, treatment with corticosteroids may need to be added.

          “Cook it, boil it, peel it or forget it” – this simple slogan would be sufficient to prevent typhoid fever nearly entirely. However, only few travelers fully adhere to this advice. Nevertheless, the value of food and water hygiene cannot be stressed enough: avoid buying water bottles without proper sealing, avoid drinking tap water from unknown sources, avoid eating cooled / frozen foods (i.e. ice cubes in water or ice cream) and avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables that you yourself have not peeled and washed with clean drinking water.

          Two types of vaccines are available:

          • Oral (live) vaccine consisting of three capsules to be taken on alternate days on empty stomach. These capsules require refrigeration before use. Protection from this vaccine is approximately 70% and starts 10 days after the third dose. After 1 to 3 years, the vaccine needs to be taken again before a new travel into at-risk areas. This vaccine cannot be given to patients with a severe chronic gastrointestinal disease (such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis) or with severe immunosuppression.
          • The single-dose vaccine is an inactivated vaccine and is injected intramuscularly. Protection also reaches around 70% and starts 14 days after the injection. This vaccine can be given to patients who should not take the oral vaccine. However, it is not registered in Switzerland, but most doctors with specialization in tropical and travel medicine and all travel health centres have the vaccine on stock. Duration of protection is around 3 years.

          Vaccination against typhoid fever is advised for long-term travelers and for travelers visiting areas where the risk of transmission is particularly high and/or the disease more difficult to treat due to severe antibiotic resistance.

          • Influenza is common all over the world including sub-tropical and tropical countries.
          • Vaccination offers the best protection. 
          • Vaccination against flu is recommended for all travellers who belong to an “at risk” group such as pregnant travellers, travellers with comorbidities, elderly people (>65 years), or who plan a a high-risk trip (e.g. cruise-ship, pilgrimage).
          • The influenza vaccine does not offer protection against avian flu.

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          • The risk of Japanese encephalitis is very low for travellers.
          • Follow diligent mosquito bite prevention measures in the evening and night.
          • A safe and effective vaccine is available that is recommended for high-risk travellers such as.
            • Work / extensive outdoor activities in rural areas.
            • Long-term stays (>4 weeks) or during an ongoing outbreak

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