Worldwide: Monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries, update as of June 2, 2022

08 juin 2022

According to the ECDC (as of June 8, 2022), a total of 1'177 cases have been confirmed worldwide (including EU/EEA). Cases occurred mainly in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), though not exclusively. Most of the cases outside the UK, Canada and US are reported to be linked to travel. However, cases with no known travel history, contact with other cases, animals or specific events are also reported.

Clinical presentation: The cases so far have been mild, there have been no deaths yet. Hospitalised patients have mostly been admitted for local isolation orders. The clinical picture is characterised by lesions that are atypical of the clinical picture in endemic countries. Currently, there are mainly very few, non-grouped, painless pustular lesions on the genitals, perianally and orally. Whether transmission occurs through genital secretions or primarily only through close skin-to-skin contact is not yet clear. The draining lymph nodes are sometimes massively swollen, and fever usually occurs for a few days. The general condition is often only slightly reduced.

Transmission: The virus can be transmitted from person to person via the respiratory tract, through direct contact with body fluids of an infected person or with virus-contaminated objects. The incubation period is 5-21 days, usually about 7-17 days. Monkeypox is transmitted from infected animals through a bite or through direct contact with blood, body fluids or lesions of the infected animal. They can be transmitted to people who eat infected animals via abrasions in the mouth, source, NCDC.

Symptoms: Symptoms of monkeypox include fever, headache, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes and chills. 1- 3 days after the onset of symptoms, a rash develops that may look like chickenpox or syphilis and spreads from the face to other parts of the body, including the genitals. The disease is usually mild. In immunocompromised individuals, the disease can be severe. The mortality rate is about 1% for the West African type and up to 10% for the Central African type.