Health Advice

for Travellers

Swiss Expert Committee for Travel Medicine
Pitcairn Islands

Pitcairn Islands

General Information

  • Avoid all non-essential travel
  • If travel is unavoidable: get full COVID-19 vaccination protection before travel and adhere strictly to the recommendations and regulations of your host country
  • Check entry requirements of destination country (see regulary updated COVID-19 Travel Regulations Map of IATA: LINK)
  • Check the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) requirements for return to Switzerland from your travel destination (see LINK)

Detailed information by diseases (key aspects | maps | fact sheets etc.) are primary included in the section 'important health risks' otherwise to be found under the respective vaccination.

Important health risks

  • Covid-19 is a disease that affects the whole body, but mainly shows with respiratory symptoms such as cough and difficulty in breathing. It is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
  • The infection is mainly spread through respiratory droplets and possibly aerosols when infected persons cough, sneeze, speak or sing without wearing a mask.
  • The infection can be prevented very effectively by vaccination and an increasing number of vaccines are now approved and available for protection.
  • Furthermore, prevention relies heavily on people wearing face masks, on hand hygiene and on physical distancing (min. 1.5 m) if masks are not worn and people are not vaccinated.

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  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a group of viral, bacterial and parasitic infections; while many are treatable, some can lead to complications, serious illness or chronic infection.
  • STIs are increasing worldwide.
  • Read the following fact sheet for more information.

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There is a risk of arthropod-borne diseases other than malaria, dengue, chikungunya or zika in sub-/tropical regions, and some areas of Southern Europe. These include the following diseases [and their vectors]:

  • in Europe
    • Borreliosis, FSME (= tick-borne encephalitis), rickettsiosis [ticks]
    • Leishmaniasis [sand flies]
    • West-Nile fever [mosquitoes]
  • in Africa
    • Rickettsiosis, in particular African tick bite fever [ticks]
    • Leishmaniasis [sand flies]
    • African trypanosomiasis =sleeping sickness [tsetse flies]
    • West-Nile fever [mosquitoes]
  • in Asia 
    • Scrub typhus [mites]
    • Rickettsiosis [fleas or ticks]
    • Leishmaniasis [sand flies]
    • West-Nile fever [mosquitoes]
    • Crimea-Congo-hemorrhagic fever [ticks]
  • in North and Latin America  
    • Rickettsioses and in particular Rocky Mountain spotted fever [ticks]
    • Leishmaniasis and Carrion's disease [sand flies]
    • American trypanosomiasis = Chagas disease [triatomine bugs]
    • West Nile fever [mosquitoes)]

Read the following factsheet for more information.

  • There are other important travel related health risks such as diarrhoea, road traffic accidents, air pollution and more.
  • For more information, see the section "Healthy Travelling".

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Vaccinations

Vaccination recommended according to Swiss recommendations.

  • Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all travellers going to tropical or subtropical countries.

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All travellers should have completed a primary vaccination course and boosters according to the Swiss vaccination schedule to prevent the following conditions:

  • Tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis-polio
  • Measles-mumps-rubella

Travellers should be immune to chickenpox. Persons between 11 and 40 years of age who have not had chickenpox should be vaccinated (2 doses with minimum interval of 4-6 weeks)

In special situations, additional vaccinations are recommended or mandatory. Discuss with your doctor whether one of the following vaccinations is recommended for you:

There is no risk of yellow fever in this country. However, there is an entry requirement by the country regarding yellow fever vaccination certificate, see below.

  • Vaccination is mandatory for entry within 6 days from a yellow fever endemic area (not for airport transit there).

  • All travellers to yellow fever endemic countries should be vaccinated against yellow fever (even if vaccination is not mandatory in the country). A booster single booster dose is recommended for immuncompetent persons after 10 years.
  • The yellow fever vaccination must be administered by an authorized doctor or center at least ten days before your arrival in the destination country with record in the yellow vaccination booklet ('International Certificate for Vaccination’).
  • For travellers who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or who have a condition that leads to immunosuppression, please consult a travel health advisor.

  • Yellow fever occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and South America and is transmitted by mosquitoes.
  • Disease may be severe in unvaccinated travelers and death may occur in over 50%.
  • A highly effective vaccine is available.
  • Due to potentially severe side effects the vaccine is used with caution in immunocompromised or elderly individuals, as well as in pregnant women.

Yellow fever is an acute viral infection transmitted through the bite of mosquitoes. The disease occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It is a potentially lethal disease. However, the vaccination offers very high protection.

Yellow fever is endemic in countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, and in Panama. Transmission occurs all over the year but may peak in the rainy season. Although the same species of mosquitoes are present, yellow fever has not been found in Asia.

The yellow fever virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected daily active Aedes mosquitoes, or Haemagogus species mosquitoes, which are day and night active. Mosquitoes acquire the virus by feeding on infected primates (human or non-human) and then can transmit the virus to other primates (human or non-human). Yellow fever transmission and epidemics are facilitated by the interface of jungle, savannah and urban areas. Humans working in the jungle can acquire the virus and become ill. The virus then can be brought to urban settings by infected individuals and may be transmitted to other people.

Most people infected with yellow fever virus have mild or no symptoms and recover completely. Some people will develop yellow fever illness with onset of symptoms typically 3 to 6 days after infection. Symptoms are unspecific and flu-like (fever, chills, head and body pain). After a brief remission, about 10-20% will develop more severe disease. Severe disease is characterized by high fever, yellow skin and eyes, bleeding, shock and organ failure. About 30 to 60% of patients with severe disease die.

There is no specific medication. Treatment is only supportive and consists of providing fluid and lowering fever. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example ibuprofen or naproxen, should be avoided due to the risk of enhanced bleeding.

As against all mosquito-borne diseases, prevention from mosquito bites is during day and night (see “Insect and tick bite protection” factsheet). The available vaccine is highly efficacious and provides a long-term protection. It is recommended for people aged 9 months or older who are travelling to yellow fever endemic areas. In addition, providing proof of vaccination may be mandatory for entry into certain countries.

The vaccine is a live-attenuated form of the virus. In immunocompetent persons, protection starts about 10 days after the first vaccination. Reactions to yellow fever vaccine are generally mild and include headache, muscle aches, and low-grade fevers.  Side effects can be treated with paracetamol but aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example ibuprofen or naproxen, should be avoided.  On extremely rare occasions, people may develop severe, sometimes life-threatening reactions to the yellow fever vaccine – which is why this vaccine is used with caution in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women and the elderly for safety reasons. Talk to your travel health advisor if you belong to this group.

In 2016, WHO changed from yellow fever booster doses every 10 years to a single dose, which is considered to confer life-long protection. However, this decision was based on limited data and mainly from endemic populations, potentially exposed to natural boosters (through contact with infected mosquitoes), which does not apply to travellers from non-endemic regions. As several experts have raised concerns about the WHO single dose strategy, the Swiss Expert Committee for Travel Medicine recommends a single booster dose ≥10 years (max. 2 doses per life-time) in immunocompetent persons after primo-vaccination before considering life-long immunity.

Yellow Fever Map - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/maps/index.html 
Yellow Fever Info - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/index.html 
Yellow Fever Info - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/yellow-fever/facts 

  • Hepatitis B is a viral liver infection that is transmitted via contaminated blood or via sexual contact.
  • A safe and very effective vaccine is available that affords life-long protection.
  • Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all young people and at-risk travellers, especially if:
    • You travel regularly or spend long periods of time abroad.
    • You are at risk of practicing unsafe sex.
    • You might undergo medical or dental treatment abroad, or undertake activities that may put you at risk of acquiring hepatitis B (tattoos, piercing, acupuncture in unsafe conditions).

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  • Influenza is common all over the world including sub-tropical and tropical countries.
  • Vaccination offers the best protection. 
  • Vaccination against flu is recommended for all travellers who belong to an “at risk” group such as pregnant travellers, travellers with comorbidities, elderly people (>65 years), or who plan a a high-risk trip (e.g. cruise-ship, pilgrimage).
  • The influenza vaccine does not offer protection against avian flu.

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